The foreign exchange market (forex, FX, or currency market) is a global, worldwide decentralized financial market for trading currencies. Financial centers around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the exception of weekends. The foreign exchange market determines the relative values of different currencies. The primary purpose of the foreign exchange is to assist international trade and investment, by allowing businesses to convert one currency to another currency. For example, it permits a US business to import British goods and pay Pound Sterling, even though the business’ income is in US dollars. It also supports direct speculation in the value of currencies, and the carry trade, speculation on the change in interest rates in two currencies. In a typical foreign exchange transaction, a party purchases a quantity of one currency by paying a quantity of another currency.
The foreign exchange market is unique because of
Its huge trading volume representing the largest asset class in the world leading to high liquidity;
Its geographical dispersion;
Its continuous operation: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e. trading from 20:15 GMT on Sunday until 22:00 GMT Friday;
The variety of factors that affect exchange rates;
The low margins of relative profit compared with other markets of fixed income; and
The use of leverage to enhance profit and loss margins and with respect to account size
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